Osteoporosis occurs when bone density decreases and the body stops generating as much bone as it did before.It can affect both males and females, but it is most commonly identified in women especially after menopause, due to the drastic decrease in oestrogen which is the hormone that usually protects against osteoporosis.
As the bones become weaker, there is an advanced risk of a fracture due to a fall or even a fairly minor knock.

Fast facts on osteoporosis:
1) Osteoporosis upsets the structure and strength of bones and creates fractures more likely, especially in the spine, hip, and wrists.
2) It is most likely to be seen among females after menopause, but smoking and poor diet increase the risk.
3) There are regularly no clear outward symptoms, but flagging of the spine may lead to a stoop, and there is a bone pain.

Treatments include drugs to prevent or slow bone loss, exercise, and dietary adjustments, including extra calcium, magnesium and vitamin D.

Bone tissue is continually being rehabilitated, and new bone substitutes old, injured bone. In this way, the body preserves bone density and the integrity of its crystals and structure.

Bone density gets the top when a person is in their late 20. After the age of around 35 years, bone gets to become weaker. As we age, bone breaks down sooner than it builds. If this happens excessively, osteoporosis results.

Causes and risk factors:

Numerous risk factors for osteoporosis have been recognized. Some are changeable, but others cannot be avoided.

Unavoidable factors:
Non-modifiable risk factors include:
1) Age: Risk increases after the mid-30s, and particularly during the aftermath      period of menopause.
2) Reduced sex hormones: Less oestrogen hormone level seem to make it tougher      for the bone to reproduce.
3) Ethnicity: White people and Asians are more vulnerable than other ethnic groups.
4) Bone structure: Being tall (over 5 feet 7 inches) or slim (weighing under 125      pounds) upsurges the risk.
5) Genetic factors: Having a close family member with a diagnosis of hip fracture or      osteoporosis makes osteoporosis more likely.
6) Fracture history: Someone who has formerlypracticed a fracture during a low-level injury, especially after the age of 50 years, is more likely to receive a diagnosis.
7) Diet and lifestyle choices
Modifiable risk factors include:
1) eating disorders, such as anorexia or bulimia nervosa.
2) tobacco smoking
3) excessive alcohol intake
4) low levels or intake of calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D, due to dietary factors, malabsorption problems, or the use of some medications
5) inactivity or immobility

Weight-bearing exercise helps avert osteoporosis. It places stress on the bones, and this inspires bone growth.

Signs and symptoms

Bone loss that leads to osteoporosis progresses slowly. There are frequently no signs or outward marks, and a person may not know they have it until they practice a fracture after a minor incident, such as a fall, or even a cough or sneeze. Generally affected areas are the hip, a wrist, or spinal vertebrae. Breaks in the spine can lead to variations in posture, a stoop, and curving of the spine.

Tests and diagnosis

A doctor will consider the patient's family medical history and their risk aspects. If they doubt osteoporosis, they will request an examination, to measure bone mineral density (BMD).

Other tests

A lateral vertebral assessment (LVA) may be suggested for an older patient who is more than one inch shorter than they used to be, or who has back pain that is not related to another condition.

An ultrasound scan of the heel bone is an alternative way to evaluate for osteoporosis. It can be carried out in the primary care setting. False positives are very frequent.

Treatment of osteoporosis
Treatment aims to:
1) Slow or prevent the development of osteoporosis
2) Maintain healthy bone mineral density and bone mass
3) Prevent fractures
4) Reduce pain
5) Maximize the person's ability to continue with their daily life
This is done through preventive lifestyle measure and the use of supplements and some drugs.
Drug therapy
Drugs that can help prevent and treat osteoporosis include:
This is an antiresorptive drug that slows bone loss and decreases fracture risk.
SERMS - Estrogen agonists or antagonists, also known as selective estrogen-receptor modulators, SERMS),
for example, raloxifene: These can reduce the risk of spine fractures in women after menopause.
Calcitonin: This helps avert spinal fracture in postmenopausal women, and it can help manage pain if a fracture occurs.
Parathyroid hormone, for example, teriparatide: This is approved for people with a high risk of fracture, as it stimulates bone formation.
RANK ligand (RANKL) inhibitors, such as denosumab: This is an immune therapy and a new type of osteoporosis treatment.
1) Certain alterations to lifestyle can reduce the risk of osteoporosis.
2) Calcium and vitamin D: Calcium is essential for bones, and ensuring an adequate calcium intake is important.
3) Dairy produces: Dairy produce is a good source of calcium and can help prevent osteoporosis.
4) Adults aged 19 years and above should consume 1,000 milligrams (mg) a day. Women aged 51 years and over, and all adults from 71 years should have a daily intake of      1,200 mg.
The time period to cure:
A woman treated for about 10 years has reduced risk than a woman who stopped her treatment after 5 years. The time factor changes based on the impact of the disease.
Osteoporosis is a foremost public-health issue that upsets everyone. The person should not wait until it breaks into their routine before taking action; it is never too early or too late to start taking care of the bones’ health.