Sjogren’s Syndrome

Sjogren’s Syndrome

Understanding Sjögren’s syndrome

Sjögren’s syndrome is an autoimmune disease considered by dryness of the mouth and eyes. Autoimmune diseases feature the irregular manufacture of antibodies in the blood that are heading against various tissues of the body. The misdirected immune system in autoimmunity tends to lead to inflammation of tissues. This particular autoimmune illness features inflammation and dysfunction in glands of the body that are responsible for generating tears and saliva. Inflammation of the glands that produce tears (lacrimal glands) leads to decreased water accumulation for tears and dry eyes. Inflammation of the glands that yield the saliva in the mouth (salivary glands, comprising the parotid glands) leads to diminished saliva production and dry mouth and dry lips.

Causes:

While the precise source of Sjögren’s syndrome is not known, there is rising scientific support for genetic (inherited) factors. The genetic background of Sjögren’s syndrome patients is a dynamic area of study. The illness is sometimes found in other family members. It is also found more usually in families that have members with other autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, autoimmune thyroid disease, type I diabetes, etc. Most patients with Sjögren’s syndrome are female.

Symptoms:

Inflammation of the salivary glands can lead to the following symptoms and signs:
Mouth dryness,
Swallowing difficulties,
Dental decay
Cavities,
Gum disease,
Mouth sores and swelling,
Hoarseness or impaired voice,
Abnormality of taste or loss of taste,
Dry cough, and
Stones and/or infection of the parotid gland inside of the cheeks.

Procedure:

The treatment of patients with Sjögren’s syndrome is focused toward the specific zones of the body that are involved and prevention of difficulties such as contamination. There is no cure for Sjögren’s syndrome.
Eyes and oral cavity are most affected parts of the body . A special care is taken in maintaining the dryness caused in these areas are considered as the treatment procedure. This assists the patient with periodical relief of pain and swelling. Irritations in eyes are cleared with eye drops that could produce artificial tears in the eyes of the patient. Regular and continuous intake of liquid food items, repeated hydration can help the patient to fight dryness. Moreover, the patient needs emotional support that could help him feeling lively.
Medically, blood tests, antinuclear antibodies, secretion gland biopsy tests are conducted to study the patient’s immunity condition.

Time duration:

It is difficult to diagnose. It takes 3 years on average from the time of identification of symptoms.
Who are prone to get:
Women are affected much by Sjogren’s syndrome.

Precautions and prevention:

There is no proved way to be precautious or preventive against the disease. It is about how we survive during this syndrome. We have to be highly conscious about our life style during the attack of this syndrome. Here are some ways to do it:
Artificial tears in eyes.
High fluid intake.
Being in a humid environment.
Salt water nasal sprays.

Conclusion

Sjögren syndrome is an expanse of vigorous immunology exploration. Many new treatments will be accessible in the near future. Research has recommended that rituximab may be useful for many features of Sjögren syndrome. Sjögren syndrome is named after a Swedish ophthalmologist, Henrik Sjögren. In the early 1900s, Sjögren called the syndrome “keratoconjunctivitissicca.” The name sicca syndrome is precisely now used only to define the combination of dryness of the mouth and eyes, irrespective of cause. The term sicca refers to the dryness of the eyes and mouth.