Understanding Rheumatology

Understanding Rheumatology

Rheumatology is the study of musculoskeletal disorders in bone joints, muscles, ligaments and rheumatoid diseases. The problem has its own history of evolution in the medical world over decades. With the ascension of travel and migration, a broad knowledge on this global spectrum regarding the musculoskeletal terms is highly important. This is the list of rheumatology diseases that are normal in us:

Osteoarthritis is the most common in which the nodal points swell up with significant pain which may reduce by application of an anti-inflammatory gel. But the nodal swellings remain causing distress.
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammation at bone nodes that are associated with severe disease and increasing death rates.
Lupus is the attack of tissues that causes inflammation, pain, swelling, and damages to the tissues physically and operationally.

Spondyloarthropathies include ankylosing spondylitis, a type of arthritis caused in spines and psoriatic arthritis is a psoriatic skin condition in joints.
Sjogren’s syndrome is the dryness caused in eyes and mouth due to secretion gland imbalance (most commonly in women)
Gout phase of arthritis that arises due to the high quantity of uric acid in the blood resulting in the formation of crystals at joints. Most commonly seen in the big toe, gout can also affect the knee, ankle, foot, hand, wrist, or elbow.
Scleroderma means "do not go away" is a skin condition caused due to immune, that can only be treated not cured.
Infectious arthritis is caused due to micro-organisms mainly at larger joints of the body like hip and knees.
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a morning_worse condition caused after you take a nap. Pain and stiffness of joints are the common symptoms.
Polymyalgia rheumatica is an infrequent inflammation causing pain around shoulders and hips.

Causes:
In medical explanation, there is no specific cause for rheumatic diseases. The ones that may cause such disease are:
1) Bad immune causing an attack on your own tissues.
2) Genetic causes.
3) Polluted environment causing infections.
4) Gender (women are the most affected)

Diagnosis


Diagnosis:

The Rheumatologist will examine the patient's health history and his exposure to the environment. Diagnosis differs from the rheumatoid diseases mentioned above and also from patient to patient. COmmon and general symptoms of rheumatic diseases are listed below:
1) Pain and swelling of joints
2) Fatigue
3) Joint stiffness

Other special symptoms and treatment procedures are discussed below:
For Osteoarthritis

a scanning process is conducted on the deceased area following which the doctor will ask for historical health and habits of the patient. Apart from the above symptoms, warmness is felt in the affected area.

For Rheumatoid arthritis

X-Ray test is conducted along with blood tests for identifying inflammation that includes,
1) Antinuclear antibody
2) Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptides
3) Complete blood count
4) "C" reactive protein
5) Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
6) Rheumatoid factor
Special symptoms include problems in the eyes and lungs, lumps.

For Lupus

Normal tests including blood and urine sample tests. Lupus diagnosis includes,
1) Antinuclear antibody test
2) Anti-double stranded DNA antibody
3) Anti-Smith antibody

For Spondyloarthropathies

Normal scanning procedures like X-Ray test along with blood test. Tests for psoriasis are also conducted.
Special symptoms include pain in the lower back and buttocks, lower back pain rising in the spine, pain in shoulder blades and in the neck for about 5 to 10 years. For psoriasis, the symptom is the pain in tendons and ligaments, rashes in the skin.

For Sjogren’s syndrome

Normal tests based on the patient's health history. Special symptoms include dry eyes, eye irritation, and burning, dry mouth, tooth decay, gum disease, swollen glands on the sides of your face and internal organ diseases (rarely).

For Gout

Laboratory tests are conducted that includes,
1) Synovial fluid analysis to check the quantity of uric acid crystals present in the joints
2) Uric acid test to find its presence in blood
3) Basic metabolism test to check the functioning of kidneys
4) Complete blood count
5) Tests for inflammation

For Scleroderma

The following special symptoms occur, Calcium lumps under your skin, Digestive trouble, Dry mouth, eyes, skin, or vagina, Heart, kidney, or lung problems, Weak muscles, Thickened skin on your finger, Raynaud’s phenomenon where the blood flow to fingers and toes gets lower resulting in blue color appearance, Telangiectasia, small dilated blood vessels you can see through your skin.
The tests conducted are:
1) Antinuclear antibody
2) Centromere antibody/centromere pattern
3) Scl-70 antibody

For Infectious Arthritis

Your doctor conducts a full physical exam and asks about your medical history. He will diagnose with a sample of fluid from the joint to determine the cause of the infection. He might also conduct an X-ray scan at the joint or an MRI or ultrasound tests for identifying any damage.

For Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

The doctor will question your child’s health history to get an idea of how long the symptoms prevailed. Then he’ll diagnose the joints for swelling, redness, and motion level. He might conduct blood tests that to identify signs of inflammation.
These include:
1) Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptides
2) Antinuclear antibody
3) Complete blood count
4) Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
5) HLA-B27
6) Rheumatoid factor

For Polymyalgia rheumatica

Weight loss is the special symptom reported for this disease. The doctor will check medical history and conduct a physical exam. 
Then he will ask for a blood sample for testing to identify different signs of inflammation. Ultimately he does this to figure out other autoimmune conditions like lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. Tests include:
1) Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptides
2) Antinuclear antibody
3) Complete blood count
4) C-reactive protein
5) Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
6) Rheumatoid factor

Advantages of the treatment:
Upon having on time treatment, pain and swelling of joints can be reduced resulting in comfort and effective motion of limbs and other parts of the body.
The time period of the treatment:
Rheumatoid diseases are treated basically on a long-term; often permanently for the provision of temporary relief to the patient.
Preferred audience: Doctors(General and surgeons), Medical students and representatives, Individuals with rheumatological disorders, Researchers.
Conclusion:

Based on the effect of impact the rheumatological diseases are cured on the temporary basis. Patient's need to get repeated appointments and medical consultancy from physicians to keep their musculoskeletal health in intact.So that they can indulge easily in their daily tasks with ease. The patient should not worry about the disease by thinking "why me?" which may cause a mental stress that will make the condition even worse.